Tempurung, as the shell is called in the Malay language, can be used as a soup bowl and—if fixed with a handle—a ladle. [91], A special cultivar of coconut known as macapuno has a jelly-like coconut meat. It is spread by host insects, that thrive on heavy turf grasses. It is one of the most useful plants worldwide and is usually known as the tree of life. [108] They can also be processed to extract palm sugar. Coconut oil is used for cooking and in a wide range of beauty products. It also has a cultural and religious significance in certain societies. Cocos nucifera. Human cultivation of the coconut selected, not for larger size, but for thinner husks and increased volume of endosperm, the solid "meat" or liquid "water" that provides the fruit its food value. International Common Names. Thus the new name for the family Palmae became Arecaceae. [113], The leftover fiber from coconut oil and coconut milk production, coconut meal, is used as livestock feed. Common English Names ... Liliopsida is considered the scientific name for monocots, but monocots may be called differently based on different taxonomic classification systems. In the Ilocos region of the northern Philippines, the Ilocano people fill two halved coconut shells with diket (cooked sweet rice), and place liningta nga itlog (halved boiled egg) on top of it. The Pacific group is the only one to display clear genetic and phenotypic indications that they were domesticated; including dwarf habit, self-pollination, and the round "niu vai" fruit morphology with larger endosperm-to-husk ratios. Chem/IUPAC Name: Cocos Nucifera Oil is the fixed oil obtained by expression of the kernels of the seeds of the Coconut, Cocos nucifera L., Palmaceae. (1993). - ABC News", "The Chemistry of Coconut Milk and Cream", "Full Report (All Nutrients): 12117, Nuts, coconut milk, raw (liquid expressed from grated meat and water)", "Ginataang Manok (Chicken Stewed in Coconut Milk) Filipino Recipe! 2) Origin: not native to North America Uses: fruit tree; wide tree lawns (>6 feet wide); medium-sized tree lawns (4-6 feet wide); recommended for buffer strips around parking lots or [50] However, there is some evidence that it may be polygamomonoecious, and may occasionally have bisexual flowers. [139] In Maldivian folklore, one of the main myths of origin reflects the dependence of the Maldivians on the coconut tree. A coco chocolatero was a cup used to serve small quantities of beverages (such as chocolate drinks) between the 17th and 19th centuries in countries such as Mexico, Guatemala, and Venezuela. [96][97] It can also be diluted into a beverage. [23] They are now almost ubiquitous between 26° N and 26° S except for the interiors of Africa and South America. Nor were there coconuts on the east side of the African coast until Vasco da Gama, nor in the Caribbean when first visited by Christopher Columbus. T. Pradeepkumar, B. Sumajyothibhaskar, and K.N. [87] The artificial landscaping may have been the cause for lethal yellowing, a viral coconut palm disease that leads to the death of the tree. [128], Cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) is a surfactant manufactured from coconut oil that is increasingly used as an ingredient in personal hygiene products and cosmetics, such as shampoos, liquid soaps, cleansers and antiseptics, among others. Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia, Learn how and when to remove this template message, more deaths are caused by falling coconuts than by sharks, Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, "coco | Origin and meaning of coco by Online Etymology Dictionary", "coconut | Origin and meaning of coconut by Online Etymology Dictionary", "The Fifth Voyage of Sindbad the Seaman – The Arabian Nights – The Thousand and One Nights – Sir Richard Burton translator", "A Brief History of the Coconut Palm in Australia", "Independent Origins of Cultivated Coconut (, "Coconuts: not indigenous, but quite at home nevertheless", "Ancient crops provide first archaeological signature of the westward Austronesian expansion", "An early sophisticated East Polynesian voyaging canoe discovered on New Zealand's coast", "Long-distance dispersal of the coconut palm by migration within the coral atoll ecosystem", "Fossil fruit of Cocos L. (Arecaceae) from Maastrichtian-Danian sediments of central India and its phytogeographical significance", "An update of monocot macrofossil data from New Zealand and Australia", "A Fossil Coconut Fruit from the Early Eocene of Gujarat", Rise in coconut yield, farming area put India on top, "How Long Does It Take for a Coconut Tree to Get Coconuts? They can be sorted mainly into tall cultivars, dwarf cultivars, and hybrid cultivars (hybrids between talls and dwarfs). [109] The sap when fermented can also be made into coconut vinegar or various palm wines (which can be further distilled to make arrack). In India, the woven coconut leaves are used to build wedding marquees, especially in the states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Coconut Oil, also called Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Oil, is a pale-yellow, semisolid, edible oil. It is also often stated that coconuts can travel 110 days, or 3,000 miles (4,800 km), by sea and still be able to germinate. This accompanies the palagip (prayer to the dead). They are ubiquitous in coastal tropical regions and are a cultural ico… It is commonly believed that the name “coconut” was given by Portuguese sailors in the 16th century because the three holes on the coconut looked like a human face. [9] Thenga, its Malayalam name, was used in the detailed description of coconut found in Itinerario by Ludovico di Varthema published in 1510 and also in the later Hortus Indicus Malabaricus. Coconuts probably originated somewhere in Indo-Malaya and are one of the most important crops of the tropics. He took the term from the Arabs, who called it جوز هندي jawz hindī, translating to 'Indian nut'. "[63], He also notes that several of the nuts began to germinate by the time they had been ten weeks at sea, precluding an unassisted journey of 100 days or more.[32]. [4][5][6] Coco and coconut apparently came from 1521 encounters by Portuguese and Spanish explorers with Pacific islanders, with the coconut shell reminding them of a ghost or witch in Portuguese folklore called coco (also côca). (2009). When left to ferment on its own, it becomes palm wine. The fruit (seed, mesoderm) and the juice (water) of Cocos nucifera is widely used for human consumption. Rank Scientific Name and Common Name; Kingdom: Plantae ... Cocos nucifera L. – coconut palm Subordinate Taxa. Cocos nucifera commonly known as coconut belongs to the large Palmaceae family of palm trees and is native to coastal areas of Southeast Asia. Common Names: Cocos nucifera The Coconut / Buko tree ; (Cocos nucifera), is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) The Coconut / Buko tree is of the genus Cocos. First edition, Blandford Press. Later, the endosperm matures and deposits onto the coconut rind during the cellular phase. "Handbook: Coconut husk as a potting medium". The fresh husk of a brown coconut may serve as a dish sponge or body sponge. [98][99] In the Philippines, sweetened reduced coconut milk is marketed as coconut syrup and is used for various desserts. COCOS NUCIFERA OIL is classified as :EmollientHair conditioningMaskingSkin conditioningSolvent. Cocos nucifera. [58][59] The tall variety is outcrossing while dwarf palms are incrossing, which has led to a much greater degree of genetic diversity within the tall group. This plant has no children Legal Status. [25][22][32] During the colonial era, Pacific coconuts were further introduced to Mexico from the Spanish East Indies via the Manila galleons. It was the world's largest producer for decades until a decline in production due to aging trees as well as typhoon devastation. But research on them is still ongoing to determine which of them (if any) actually belong to the genus Cocos. Coconut milk, not to be confused with coconut water, is obtained by pressing the grated coconut meat, usually with hot water added which extracts the coconut oil, proteins, and aromatic compounds. Fresh husks contain more tannin than old husks. In Vanuatu, coconut palms for copra production are generally spaced 9 m (30 ft) apart, allowing a tree density of 100 to 160 per hectare (40 to 65 per acre). [citation needed], In 2010, Indonesia increased its coconut production. The distribution of the Pacific coconuts correspond to the regions settled by Austronesian voyagers indicating that its spread was largely the result of human introductions. Hawaii Native Status: Introduced. The aim is to knock a coconut off the stand and win it. Thailand has been raising and training pig-tailed macaques to pick coconuts for around 400 years. Adkins S.W., M. Foale and Y.M.S. Spraying with wettable sulfur 0.4% or with Neem-based pesticides can give some relief, but is cumbersome and labor-intensive. However, they can be found in humid areas with low annual precipitation such as in Karachi, Pakistan, which receives only about 250 mm (9.8 in) of rainfall per year, but is consistently warm and humid. A coconut tree is also included in the country's national emblem and coat of arms. In Sanskrit, it is kalpa vriksha ("the tree which provides all the necessities of life"). Coconut, fruit of the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera), a tree of the palm family (Arecaceae). [47] It is consumed throughout the humid tropics, and has been introduced into the retail market as a processed sports drink. Coconut palms are cultivated north of south Florida to roughly Cocoa Beach on the East Coast and Clearwater on the West Coast. [123][124][125] Amphioctopus marginatus is the first invertebrate known to be able to use tools.[124][126]. Coconut Palm Tree – Cocos nucifera The Coconut Palm Tree, scientific name Cocos nucifera, is one of the most popular palms in the world because of its fruits “coconuts”. [91] Coconut chips, made from oven-baked coconut meat, have been sold in the tourist regions of Hawaii and the Caribbean.[104]. The 2014 study hypothesized that instead the species evolved while on coral atolls in the Pacific, and then dispersed to the continents. Family Arecaceae – Palm family Genus Cocos L. – coconut palm P Species Cocos nucifera L. – coconut palm P Enter a scientific or common name at any rank. Fishermen give an offering of coconut to the sea to celebrate the beginning of a new fishing season. In particular, the area around Salalah maintains large coconut plantations similar to those found across the Arabian Sea in Kerala. Satheesan. [138], Some South Asian, Southeast Asian, and Pacific Ocean cultures have origin myths in which the coconut plays the main role. Many of the smallest coral islands in the Florida Keys are known to have abundant coconut palms sprouting from coconuts that have drifted or been deposited by ocean currents. The endosperm is initially in its nuclear phase suspended within the coconut water. It provides food, fuel, cosmetics, folk medicine and building materials, among many other uses. Hawaiians hollowed the trunk to form drums, containers, or small canoes. Flower Color: Yellowish green, Creamy yellow. Flowering Season: Year-round Indonesia overtook it in 2010. In Johann Vollmann and Istvan Rajcan (Eds.). Synthesis Of Nanoparticles From Coconut Flower (Cocos Nucifera) / Nisha Raj , DR. K. Arulmozhi / International Journal for Scientific Research & Development, Vol 2, Issue 10 (2015): pp 193-195 (73) SAFETY OF ETHYL ACETATE FRACTION OF COCOS NUCIFERA ROOT EXTRACT. Training without Reward: Traditional Training of Pig-tailed Macaques as Coconut Harvesters. It is still the largest producer of coconut oil and copra, accounting for 64% of the global production. The main purpose of having a scientific name is to have a same name accepted and used worldwide. Per 100-gram serving, coconut water contains 19 calories and no significant content of essential nutrients. [55][56], Variants of C. nucifera are also categorized as tall (var. About 74% of the world's supply of coconuts derives from Indonesia, the Philippines, and India combined. Coconut oil is used for cooking and in a wide range of beauty products. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. Salunkhe, D.K., J.K. Chavan, R.N. 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Perera, Lalith, Suriya A.C.N. C. binoriensis has been claimed by their authors to be the earliest known fossil of Cocos nucifera. Its fruits are similar to the coconut, but smaller. The husk and shells can be used for fuel and are a source of charcoal. Cocos L. – coconut palm : Species: Cocos nucifera L. – coconut palm, Palma de Coco Plants are intolerant of cold weather and prefer copious precipitation, as well as full sunlight. Omani people needed the coir rope from the coconut fiber to stitch together their traditional seagoing dhow vessels in which nails were never used. The production of coconuts plays an important role in the economy, with 25% of cultivated land (around 3.56 million hectares) used for coconut plantations and approximately 25 to 33% of the population reliant on coconuts for their livelihood. In the Hainuwele myth from Maluku, a girl emerges from the blossom of a coconut tree. Preferred Scientific Name. Scientific Name: Cocos nucifera. They need year round warmth and moisture to grow well and fruit. It is a haustorium, a spongy absorbent tissue formed from the distal portion of embryo during coconut germination, facilitates absorption of nutrients for the growing shoot and root. [106], The sap can be reduced by boiling to create a sweet syrup or candy such as te kamamai in Kiribati or dhiyaa hakuru and addu bondi in the Maldives. It is one of the most useful trees in the world and is often referred to as the "tree of life". [32] If they were naturally distributed and had been in the Pacific for a thousand years or so, then we would expect the eastern shore of Australia, with its own islands sheltered by the Great Barrier Reef, to have been thick with coconut palms: the currents were directly into, and down along this coast. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. But the correct way of writing a scientific name is making it italicized. The … However their historical distribution was likely more limited. Since then, numerous other fossils of similar fruits were recovered throughout New Zealand from the Eocene, Oligocene, and possibly the Holocene. READ ALSO: What Is The Scientific Name Of Rice? [67] Yellowing diseases affect plantations in Africa, India, Mexico, the Caribbean and the Pacific Region. [68], The coconut palm is damaged by the larvae of many Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species which feed on it, including the African armyworm (Spodoptera exempta) and Batrachedra spp. [50] The root system consists of an abundance of thin roots that grow outward from the plant near the surface. A coconut (Sanskrit: narikela) is an essential element of rituals in Hindu tradition. [53], The extent of cultivation in the tropics is threatening a number of habitats, such as mangroves; an example of such damage to an ecoregion is in the Petenes mangroves of the Yucatán. It is claimed that they evolved to disperse significant distances via marine currents. [72], Coconut has a number of commercial and traditional cultivars. ; Batugal, P.; Bonnot, F. (2008). In Thailand, the coconut husk is used as a potting medium to produce healthy forest tree saplings. Coconuts are commonly grown around the northern coast of Australia, and in some warmer parts of New South Wales. Scientific Name: Cocos L. (Arecaceae) nucifera L. Related Plants 'Fiji Dwarf' 'Green Malayan' 'Jamaican Tall' 'Malay … [citation needed]. The conditions required for coconut trees to grow without any care are: The main limiting factor for most locations which satisfy the rainfall and temperature requirements is canopy growth, except those locations near coastlines, where the sandy soil and salt spray limit the growth of most other trees. Coconut milk powder, a protein-rich powder can be processed from coconut milk following centrifugation, separation, and spray drying. The use of coconut branches in corporal punishment was revived in the Gilbertese community on Choiseul in the Solomon Islands in 2005. In the Philippines, the coconut is commonly called the "tree of life". (1992). [33], Coconuts are susceptible to the phytoplasma disease, lethal yellowing. [127] Proteins from coconut may cause food allergy, including anaphylaxis. [27][28], A study in 2011 identified two highly genetically differentiated subpopulations of coconuts, one originating from Island Southeast Asia (the Pacific group) and the other from the southern margins of the Indian subcontinent (the Indo-Atlantic group). Gasa suggested, for lack of paper, delivering by dugout canoe a message inscribed on a husked coconut shell, reading “Nauru Isl commander / native knows posit / he can pilot / 11 alive need small boat / Kennedy.”[117] This coconut was later kept on the president's desk, and is now in the John F. Kennedy Library.[118]. The exocarp and mesocarp make up the "husk" of the coconuts. Coconut Acid is a mixture of fatty acids derived from Coconut Oil. A solitary palm with a stout trunk particularly at the base, it is rarely vertical, with long pinnate arching leaves at the top. Coconut butter is often used to describe solidified coconut oil, but has also been adopted as an alternate name for creamed coconut, a specialty products made of coconut milk solids or puréed coconut meat and oil. Adsule, and S.S. Kadam. TRAMIL Research 31. The researchers concluded that it was brought by early Austronesian sailors to the Americas from at least 2,250 BP, and may be proof of pre-Columbian contact between Austronesian cultures and South American cultures, albeit in the opposite direction than what early hypotheses like Heyerdahl's had proposed. [105], The sap derived from incising the flower clusters of the coconut is drunk as neera, also known as toddy or tubâ (Philippines), tuak (Indonesia and Malaysia) or karewe (fresh and not fermented, collected twice a day, for breakfast and dinner) in Kiribati. [42] A frayed piece of root can also be used as a toothbrush. Cocos is a genus of palm tree family Arecaceae where coconut is its only species. [citation needed], A full-sized coconut weighs about 1.4 kg (3.1 lb). coconut; Other Scientific Names. Plant Characteristics. [34][35] The vast majority of Cocos-like fossils have been recovered generally from only two regions in the world: New Zealand and west-central India. Cocos nucifera L. Preferred Common Name. [citation needed], Among modern C. nucifera, two major types or variants occur: a thick-husked, angular fruit and a thin-husked, spherical fruit with a higher proportion of endosperm reflect a trend of cultivation in C. nucifera. Duration: Perennial, Evergreen. The Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Kannur under Kerala Agricultural University has developed an innovative extension approach called the compact area group approach to combat coconut mites. [107], Coconut sap, usually extracted from cut inflorescence stalks is sweet when fresh and can be drunk as is like in tuba fresca of Mexico. Other aspects such as seed size, shape and weight, and copra thickness are also important factors in the selection of new cultivars. ", https://source.wustl.edu/2011/06/deep-history-of-coconuts-decoded, "Germination rate is the significant characteristic determining coconut palm diversity". Coconut oil is increasingly used in the food industry. Scientific Classification Decayed roots are replaced regularly as the tree grows new ones. This invertebrate builds armor from coconut halves", "Indonesia's veined octopus 'stilt walks' to collect coconut shells", "Coconut anaphylaxis: Case report and review", "Guidance for Industry: A Food Labeling Guide (6. Nevertheless, the authors Gomez-Navarro et al. [35] coconut scientific name, ", "Caribbean Plate: A Recipe For Coconut Chips From Jamaica", "The Alcohol Industry of the Philippine Islands Part II: Distilled Liquors; their Consumption and Manufacture", "Hans van Amsterdam: Coconut Cup with Cover (17.190.622ab) – Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History – The Metropolitan Museum of Art", "Remembering PT-109: A carved walking stick evokes ship commander John F. Kennedy's dramatic rescue at sea", "MO63.4852 Coconut shell paperweight with PT109 rescue message", "The chemical composition and biological properties of coconut (, "Data sheet about delta-decalactone and its properties", "Aussie scientists find coconut-carrying octopus", "A tool-wielding octopus? (2008). Due to growing sedentary lifestyles and heavy-handed landscaping, a decline in these traditional farming and soil-fixing techniques has occurred. Cocos nucifera L. [69], Brontispa longissima (coconut leaf beetle) feeds on young leaves, and damages both seedlings and mature coconut palms. [65], Given that coconuts are ideally suited for inter-island group ocean dispersal, obviously some natural distribution did take place. The knowhow of coconut cultivation and necessary soil fixation and irrigation may have found its way into Omani, Hadrami and Al-Mahra culture by people who returned from those overseas areas. (April 2006). 240 p. Bertrand, Mireille. [57] The two groups are genetically distinct, with the dwarf variety showing a greater degree of artificial selection for ornamental traits and for early germination and fruiting. Cocos nucifera Taxonomy ID: 13894 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid13894) current name In the Philippines, this alcoholic drink is called lambanog or "coconut vodka". In India, this is used in Hindu rituals. [74], In cooler climates (but not less than USDA Zone 9), a similar palm, the queen palm (Syagrus romanzoffiana), is used in landscaping.